Sandeep Ranade sings 'Mile Sur Mera Tumhara' in Raga Bhairavi.

Tanmay Deockake plays Raga Puriya Dhanashree on Harmonium.



Experience beautiful, artistic, live, raga-aware swarmandal accompaniment  in concert, recordings or practice.


Enjoy the rich, resonant and realistic Swarmandal as it creates a beautiful, immersive raga-soundscape with exquisite creativity, artistry and variety.


Never keep your audience waiting again as you painstakingly tune over 40 strings, when you can get perfect, 22-Shruti tuning in an instant!


100+ Ragas at your fingertips to choose from. And many more Ragas are added regularly.


One less instrument, one less carry-case to worry about! Carry around your swarmandal on your iPhone or iPad.


For concerts or recordings, enjoy expert level control with advanced settings like EQ, Tail Resonance , 22 Shruti Tuning and different Accompaniment Modes.



Accurate, real-time, visual biofeedback guides you swiftly to the perfect note and helps you reach higher aural and vocal resolution.


Over time, as you gain precision in sustaining notes at one level, you can challenge yourself by moving up to the next level.


As you sing/play, the live swarmandal plays complimentary phrases at the right time and inspires creativity and spontaneity.


The Reference Keyboard allows you to experience the all notes precicely, 12 Gandhar Tuned notes as well as the 22 Shrutis, the recommended tuning for Indian Classical Music.


See your progress over time as a score that measures your speed, accuracy and stability. A great motivation and accountability tool.


With the live swarmandal creating an mesmerizing raga-soundscape as you sing, your notes will automatically hit the right points without conscious thought or effort through a process called 'entrainment'.


NaadSadhana for iOS is the brainchild of Sandeep Ranade 'Naadrang', a Hindustani Classical Singer & Composer, Software Engineer, Educator and Endless Evolutionist.

Version 1 - The Precision Tuner Engineered for the Human Voice
In the Gurukul system, students of music would be taught for long hours by the Guru every day. This allowed learning precise positions of notes through continuous feedback. These days, students learn a few hours a week and then practice many hours a week on their own, without guidance, making it difficult to attain note precision; they thus get into bad singing habits that are hard to fix later.
The first version of the NaadSadhana iOS app solved this problem by providing biofeedback to gently guide the student towards the perfect note, increase both vocal and aural resolution and build muscle memory for singing perfect notes.

Version 2 - The Smart Swarmandal
Being a software engineer as well as a Hindustani Classical Singer, Sandeep is deeply interested in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence as well as the science and art of Music. He's been fascinated by the swarmandal, a traditional string instrument, that can create a magical ambience. The swarmandal also has the ability to spontaneously 'entrain' or synchronize one’s notes without conscious effort. Unfortunately, tuning the 35+ strings of the swarmandal for a given Raga is both difficult and time consuming.
Version 2 of NaadSadhana contains a smart virtual swarmandal which is always perfectly tuned, creative, concert-worthy and understands over 100 Ragas. Simply turn the Live Swarmandal Button on and it will accompany you perfectly, artistically, and intelligently as you sing or play.

Naadyoga (Yoga of Sound) is a highly optimized system of learning and practice created by Sandeep Ranade ‘Naadrang’. Its seven levels systematically exercise all vocal capabilities needed to produce nuanced and powerful emotion effortlessly in any genre of music. Naadyoga compresses 10+ hours of practice time in 1 hour.

Learn more about Naadyoga.

These are the areas of research that have been instrumental in creating NaadSadhana:

1. Vocal Frequency Analysis
2. Isolating melody by removing speech and noise
3. Creating tiers of error thresholds based on psychoacoustic computation of Just Noticeable Difference between two frequencies and Computing accuracy score.
4. Precise Tuning Ratios for Gandhar and 22-Shruti systems.
5. Synthesis of realistic Swarmandal sound.
6. Encoding 100+ Ragas and their nuances
7. Creativity Engine for generating correct, beautiful and varied phrases for Ragas.
8. When, what and how to play the Swarmandal - Artificial Intelligence algorithms decide on the phrase, the timing and the manner in which to play it based on singing style, Raga, volume, speed, direction, nyaas, etc.
9. Algorithm for maximizing consonance in Raga Shrutis for over 100 Ragas.

22 Shruti Tuning is a ancient, sophisticated, microtonal system of tuning. In every octave, there are 7 Swars. Of these, 2 are ‘Achal’ or ‘Immovable’ - Shadja (Sa) and Pancham (Pa). The remaining 5 notes (Re, Ga, Ma, Dha and Ni), called ‘Chala’ or ‘Movable’ Notes, have two variants each - a low and a high. This is how we get the 12 notes (5*2 + 2) in an octave. But, in a 22 Shruti system, each of 10 ‘Chala’ notes are further subdivided into 2 Shrutis - a low and high variant, giving a total of 22 (2*10 + 2) Shrutis. Thus for each of the 5 Notes (Re, Ga, Ma, Dha and Ni), we have 4 variants called ati-komal, komal, shuddha and teevra.. For each of the 10 ‘Chala’ notes, there is a region of pitch movement that is allowed in Hindustani Classical Raga Music that is demarcated by its corresponding two Shrutis. There are no such regions for Sa and Pa, which are fixed points in the octave. Although the difference between consecutive Shrutis is very small, when appropriate shrutis are used, it can subtly enhance consonance in a Raga's soundscape.

Gandhar Tuning is a tuning system based on the concept of the ‘Swayambhu’ (Self Manifested) Gandhar that can be heard in a perfectly tuned Tanpura. It is a system of 12 notes where there is a self-consistent relationship between notes. These 12 notes are a subset of the 22 Shrutis. In Gandhar Tuning, all the Shuddha Notes are tuned precisely using the Shadja :: Swayambhu-Gandhar :: Pancham ratios. Sa :: Ga :: Pa, Ma :: Dha :: Sa and Pa :: Ni :: Re are all the same ratios. Once the ratios of Shuddha notes are fixed using the above relationships, one can extend them to find the ratios of the remaining Komal and Teevra notes.

Equal Temperament is an invention of Western Music that enables playing chords in many scales. Since a Gandhar / 22-Shruti Keyboard cannot be used for any other pitch than it was originally tuned for, these can’t be used for chromatic melodies that span multiple pitches. Equal Tempered Notes split the octave in 12 ‘Equal’ parts. Now, the frequencies in an octave follow a power of two relationship, i.e. a note in the higher octave is 2 times the frequency of the same note in a lower octave. This means that the 12 parts are not at equal frequency intervals. Rather, ratios of subsequent notes are a ‘12th root of 2’ factor apart. Except for Sa, all others are irrational numbers, therefore dissonant with the Sa. In fact, only ratios that are simple rational fractions are harmonic with the Sa. Sa-Ga-Pa, Ma-Dha-Sa and Pa-Ni-Re chords (major chord) on an Equi Tempered keyboard are somewhat dissonant, while on a Gandhar Tuned / 22-Shruti keyboard, they are perfectly consonant. Equi-Tempered Tuning should be only used for multi-pitch melodies; it is unsuitable for Hindustani Classical Music.

Shruti selection for Ragas is very scientific and precise. Each Swar has a relationship with every other Swar. A swar is said to have consonance with another swar if a harmony is created when both are played simultaneously, due to the relationship between their frequencies. If there is a lack of harmony, then the two swars are said to be dissonant.

When all Swars in a raga are considered, there exists a unique selection of Shrutis for those Swars that maximises the overall consonance between each note in the Raga.

22-Shruti selection offers a bit more consonance than Gandhar Tuning, although Gandhar Tuning is by no means dissonant. The difference is small but noticeable to the keen ear.

Unfortunately, an Android version is not on the roadmap as of now. Apple's digital signal processing unit is remarkably well designed, has very low latency and makes all the heavy computation and complex algorithms like signal processing, fundamental frequency detection, or note analysis possible. We hope Android brings feature parity in its sound stack soon.


1. Four levels of accuracy.
2. Tuner - Real-time visual guidance guides you swiftly to the perfect note and helps you reach higher aural and vocal resolution.
3. Diagnostic volume waveform.
4. Selected Raga indicator: shows raga selected for tuner and swarmandal.
5. Swarmandal - Live, creative, raga-aware, perfectly tuned, concert-worthy smart wwarmandal is just a click away. 

Step 1. Turn on your tanpura app (e.g. iTablaPro) and set its pitch and fine tuning.
Step 2. Connect your headphones or bluetooth speakers and make sure the tanpura app is playing on your speaker of choice.
Step 3. Open the NaadSadhana app to the Settings Tab and set the same Pitch and Fine tuning as your Tanpura App.
Step 4. Navigate to the Tuner tab.
Step 5. Before you start singing, make sure that the tanpura volume and speaker distance is optimal so although you can hear it, no waveform is seen.
Step 6. Optionally, select a Raga from the Settings Tab and turn on the Swarmandal by clicking the Swarmandal Button. While on, the smart swarmandal will accompany you as you sing or play.
Step 7. Start Singing or Playing!

1. Keep tanpura app’s volume at optimal levels (not too high) for your practice.
2. For NaadSadhana to display swar changes responsively and in real time, we recommend using a wired or on-device microphone and not Bluetooth microphones as they cause latency and delays in processing.
3. The best setup is a wired microphone close to your mouth with a bluetooth speaker for the tanpura and swarmandal. If you cannot use a wired microphone, place yourself between the iOS device and bluetooth speaker, thereby using your body to shield the microphone from the speaker.
4. If you see a waveform even when you are not singing or playing, you may have your tanpura app turned up too loud. If you are using a bluetooth or wired speaker, slowly move your iOS device away from it until no waveform is seen in the tuner tab.
5. Sing at a comfortable volume. If you sing too softly, the app may not be able to hear you clearly enough. The App does its best to ignore speech and background noise. If you see the microphone icon (🎙), the App can't hear you sing. Try singing with your iOS device kept nearer.

The human voice cannot hold a note perfectly at a given frequency the same way an instrument can. There are always lesser or greater fluctuations in the note. You can train your brain and voice to get more accuracy by reducing these fluctuations. The higher the level, more accurate the note is expected to be. In fact, at Expert level, the fluctuations are no longer noticeable to the average human ear. The Perfect level is for tuning an instrument and provides very accurate frequency information.

🎙 - The App can't hear you sing.
Blue in the left half means you are singing slightly flat (low) and should raise (☝️) your note a bit.
Yellow in the right half means You are singing a bit sharp (high) and should lower (👇) your note a tad.
Green - You’ve hit the note perfectly (👌).
Fat Green with an orange triangle - You’ve hit and sustained the note perfectly (👌).
Fat Red - You have sustained a note that is not in the Raga you’ve selected (❌).

Start with the Beginner level and sing long notes (e.g. Alapi or Omkar) for a while. If you are hitting the fat green circle consistently and scoring higher than 85% or so, it's time to move up a level. If you are already at the Expert level and scoring 85% or more, congratulations! You are truly a master of Swar.

NaadSadhana takes your privacy extremely seriously. To ensure complete privacy, the App only monitors the microphone in real time and never records the audio.
When the swarmandal is on, NaadSadhana requests iOS to keep the microphone on in the background in order to accompany you even if the app is not in the foreground. This allows for seamless swarmandal accompaniment in concerts or in practice when you need to change the Tabla Tempo, or look up lyrics (or even check social media or read your messages!).
When an App is using the microphone in the background (e.g. Voice Memos), iOS shows the red bar automatically. When the swarmandal is turned off, the app stops monitoring the microphone and the red bar disappears.


1. Tuning Selection (Gandhar / 22 Shruti).
2. Pitch and Fine Tuning. Set pitch of middle Sa to a piano key such as D, F#. Adjust it up or down using fine tuner wheel marked -1, 0, 1 etc. Use the frequency display above the keyboard to fine tune to a known frequency.
3. Pick a raga for the Tuner and Swarmandal.
Tweak Swarmandal settings.
Play a swarmandal sample for the selected pitch and raga.
4. The Reference keyboard changes based on the Tuning and Raga selected. When a key is played, the ratio of the shruti is displayed above the keyboard. Although the keyboard shows swars not in the raga it doesn't play those swars.
5. Balance the Swarmandal / Keyboard volumes using the volume slider at the bottom.

For Advanced users, there are three settings available to further refine the Swarmandal. They are accessed by clicking the 'sliders' button to the left of the Raga Selection.

EQ - This range-slider gives you control over the low cutoff frequency and the high cutoff frequency. The default settings should work for most speakers, but for others, one can change the tonal quality of the Swarmandal using this setting.

TAIL - The strength and length of the tail end of the swarmandal resonance can be controlled using this setting. If, even after balancing the swarmandal volume using the slider at the bottom of the Settings tab, the tail is too strong, then moving the slider to the left will reduce it.

MODE - There are three modes in which the Swarmandal will accompany you - Gentle is a subtle and comparatively infrequent accompaniment, Lively is more interactive and bit more frequent whereas Dynamo is energetic and frequent.

The Gandhar Tuned Keyboard is the gold standard. No matter what scale and fine tuning you select, the Sa is always on the first black key. When you play any key, the name of the Note as well as its ratio relative to Sa is displayed. For example, Pa is 1.5 times the frequency of Sa. This ratio can help you tune other software instruments like Tanpura with greater precision.

If a Raga is selected, then playing a note on the keyboard that is not allowed in the Raga will result in no sound being played and a red cross (❌). Playing a keyboard will not affect your score in any way.
In 22-shruti mode: When no raga is selected, the full 22 shruti keyboard is displayed, but when a raga is selected, only the relevant 12 note keyboard is displayed

To select a Raga, click to open the Raga drop down menu. Simply click (or search for and click) to select a Raga.
To deselect a raga, simply open the drop down and pick the ‘No Raga Selected’ option. 

The Volume slider controls both the Keyboard and Swarmandal volume independent of the Main Device Volume.To mix the Swarmandal volume in with other apps and instruments, start with the Tanpura App and set volumes of tanpura, tabla, etc. Now, use the Volume Slider in the NaadSadhana Settings Tab to keep the Swarmandal volume so that it’s heard clearly, yet not too loud. To help you balance the swarmandal, press the Play Sample button to the right of the Raga Selection to hear a swarmandal sample at the selected volume.

Ragas are being continuously added to the NaadSadhana App. If there is a Raga you need to be added, please email me at naadsadhana at sandeepranade dot com.

Traditionally, the swarmandal is used for Ragas with a well formed ‘chalan’ or movement. Some Ragas, like Basant Bahar are not well formed and can transition unpredictably between the constituent ragas from any junction note. This makes it rather difficult for the swarmandal to decide which Raga to play in. It is better to err on the side of caution and not play the swarmandal at all than to derail the artist’s thought process by, say, playing a Basant phrase while a Bahar phrase is being sung or played, or vice versa.


As you sing, NaadSadhana calculates a score - a measure of how quickly and how long you can sustain notes accurately after hitting them, and shows how the score evolves over time. This is a great motivational and accountability tool that also encourages regular practice.

The score is a measure of how quickly and how long you can sustain notes accurately after hitting them. The score is most meaningful for slow and medium tempo note transitions, where a note is sustained for more than 400 milliseconds.
Let's say your score is 60%. That means, that of 100 notes you hit perfectly, you were able to quickly and correctly hold for 60% of the time, before the note wavered. As you train with the app, you should see an improvement in this score - that is, you ought to hit and sustain notes more perfectly with minimal fluctuations. The Score Tab shows you your current score as well as how the score has evolved over time.

A lot of factors influence the rate of improvement, such as how long one has been singing, old habits, concentration and the quality, consistency and duration of practice. For most people though, consistent half-hour practice every day ought to improve their note accuracy perceptibly in a few weeks. You can use the statistics tab in the app to track how your score improves over time.

The Fat Red Circle with the Red Cross (❌) indicates that you’ve sustained a note that’s not allowed in the currently selected Raga. The Score drops off to discourage singing notes not allowed in the Raga. If you are singing a song that doesn’t quite fit a Raga, you can turn off the Raga selection by going to the Settings Tab and selecting ‘No Raga Selected’ Option in the Raga List.

© Copyright 2018 Sandeep D. Ranade.