NaadSadhana works best alongside tanpura apps like iTablaPro. You simply turn your tanpura on, connect headphones or a bluetooth speaker and open the NaadSadhana app. Make sure the scale and fine tuning are the same as your iTablaPro settings. You are ready to sing! Go to the tuner tab and start singing. The app will tell you how high or low your note is. If you hit the perfect note, the circle turns green. If you sustain the note correctly, it turns a fat green and the small triangle turns orange.
A lot of factors influence the rate of improvement, such as how long one has been singing, old habits, concentration and the quality, consistency and duration of practice. For most people though, consistent half-hour practice every day ought to improve their note accuracy perceptibly in a few weeks. You can use the statistics tab in the app to track how your score improves over time.
The human voice cannot be expected to hold a note perfectly at a given frequency the same way an instrument can. There are always lesser or greater fluctuations in the note. You can train your brain and voice to get more accurate by reducing these fluctuations. The higher the level, more accurate the note is expected to be. In fact, at the Expert level, the fluctuations are no longer noticeable to the average human ear.
22 Shruti Tuning is a ancient, sophisticated, microtonal system of tuning. In every octave, there are 7 Swars. Of these, 2 are ‘Achal’ or ‘Immovable’ - Shadja (Sa) and Pancham (Pa). The remaining 5 notes (Re, Ga, Ma, Dha and Ni), called ‘Chala’ or ‘Movable’ Notes, have two variants each - a low and a high. This is how we get the 12 notes (5*2 + 2) in an octave. But, in a 22 Shruti system, each of 10 ‘Chala’ notes are further subdivided into 2 Shrutis - a low and high variant, giving a total of 22 (2*10 + 2) Shrutis. Thus for each of the 5 Notes (Re, Ga, Ma, Dha and Ni), we have 4 variants: low-low (Ati-Komal), low-high (Komal), high-low (Shuddha) and high-high (Teevra). For each of the 10 ‘Chala’ notes, there is a region of movement that is allowed in Hindustani Classical Raga Music which demarcated by its corresponding two Shrutis. This region is conspicuously missing for Sa and Pa, which are fixed points in the octave. The difference between consecutive Shrutis is very small and requires years of training.
Gandhar Tuning is a tuning system based on the concept of the ‘Swayambhu’ (Self Manifested) Gandhar found in a perfectly tuned Tanpura. It is a system of 12 notes where there is a self-consistent relationship between notes. These 12 notes are a subset of the 22 Shrutis. In Gandhar Tuning, all the Shuddha Notes are tuned precisely using the Shadja :: Swayambhu-Gandhar :: Pancham ratios. Sa :: Ga :: Pa, Ma :: Dha :: Sa and Pa :: Ni :: Re are all the same ratios. Once the ratios of Shuddha notes are fixed using the above relationships, one can extend them to find the ratios of the remaining Komal and Teevra notes. Only when Gandhar Tuning is mastered, is it possible to master the 22 Shrutis.
Equal Temperament is an invention of Western Music that enables playing chords in many scales. Since a Gandhar / 22-Shruti Keyboard cannot be used for any other pitch than it was originally tuned for, these can’t be used for chromatic melodies that span multiple pitches. Equal Tempered Notes split the octave in 12 ‘Equal’ parts. Now, the frequencies in an octave follow a power of two relationship, i.e. a note in the higher octave is 2 times the frequency of the same note in a lower octave. This means that the 12 parts are not at equal frequency intervals. Rather, ratios of subsequent notes are a ‘12th root of 2’ factor apart. This is an irrational number and every single note except Sa has an irrational and therefore dissonant ratio. Additionally, only ratios that are simple rational fractions are harmonic with the Sa. Sa-Ga-Pa, Ma-Dha-Sa and Pa-Ni-Re chords (major chord) on an Equi Tempered keyboard are somewhat dissonant, while on a Gandhar Tuned / 22-Shruti keyboard, they are beautifully consonant. Equi-Tempered Tuning should be only used for multi-pitch melodies and is unsuitable for Hindustani Classical Music.
Please email us at naadsadhana at sandeepranade dot com. We look forward to hearing from you!
Unfortunately, an Android version is not on the roadmap as of now. Apple's digital signal processing unit is remarkably well designed, has very low latency and makes all the heavy computation and complex algorithms like signal processing, fundamental frequency detection, or note analysis possible. We hope Android brings feature parity in its sound stack soon.